These terms are commonly found on within the Pay-per-use process or within the copyright-related information found throughout this Web site:

Annual Copyright License
Available to both academic institutions and businesses, the Annual Copyright License provides year-round rights to lawfully use and share covered copyrighted materials within these institutions and organizations.
The writer’s name, which accompanies a news item or article.
Citation Information
Also known as the “attribution” or “credit line,” a formal acknowledgment that copyrighted material has been reproduced with permission of the copyright holder. The credit line accompanies the reproduced material (e.g., at the end of an article). A credit line might read as follows: “(Title)(Volume/Edition) by (Author). Copyright (Copyright Year) by (Copyright Holder). Reproduced with permission of (Copyright Holder) via Copyright Clearance Center.”
Copyright Clearance Center Processing Charge
The fee charged by Copyright Clearance Center to customers for processing their pay-per-use permission requests. Customers pay this processing charge in addition to any royalty fees charged by the rightsholder.
Copyright Holder
A publisher, author, organization or individual holding the rights to reproduce or distribute an article, book, image, video or other copyrighted material.
Groupings of materials (articles, book chapters, etc.) that are photocopied for classroom use. Permission to reuse copyrighted content for coursepacks is available through our pay-per-use services.
Electronic Coursepack
A grouping of materials (articles, book chapters, etc.) in digital format that are posted on a password protected academic intranet. Permission to reuse copyrighted content for electronic coursepacks is available through our pay-per-use services.
Electronic Reserves
Supplemental educational materials (articles, textbook chapters, etc.) that colleges and universities make available to students online through a password protected intranet.
Flat Fee
A flat fee is a single royalty fee charged to use licensed material, regardless of the number of pages or copies requested.
A publishing term for writers, photographers and other creators who work independently and may retain the copyrights to the materials they create.
International Standard Book Number. This standardized international code identifies a book independently of its country of publication and its publishing organization. ISBNs contain 10 or 13 digits, not including hyphens.
International Standard Serial Number. This standardized international code identifies a serial publication independently of its country of publication, language, alphabet, frequency, medium, etc. ISSNs are eight-character numbers in the following format: XXXX-XXXX.
Permission to use or distribute copyrighted content.
Library of Congress Control Number. A unique identifier created by the Library of Congress and used by libraries all over the world when cataloging books.
Multinational Copyright License
An extension of the Annual Copyright License – Business, which offers copyright coverage for internal reuse of materials to employees in more than 175 countries around the world.
Non-pre-authorized Titles
Copyrighted materials in Copyright Clearance Center’s title catalog for which we cannot grant immediate permission. For non-pre-authorized titles, we contact the copyright holder on the customer’s behalf and post the results to the customer’s account.
OCLC Number
Online Computer Library Center, Inc. and Ohio College Library Center. A unique accession number assigned by the OCLC system when a record is added to WorldCat and used to search for records.
Order Detail
A term used in Copyright Clearance Center’s pay-per-use services to refer to each item in an order. For example, an order for permission to photocopy multiple articles for a coursepack entails multiple order details. Each separate request to use an article constitutes an order detail.
Pay-per-use Account
An account created by a Copyright Clearance Center customer that permits the customer to place orders under any or all of our pay-per-use services.
Pay-per-use Services
“Pay as you go” services from Copyright Clearance Center that license the reproduction of material from copyrighted works on a case-by-case basis. The following permission types are offered:

  • Photocopy for academic coursepacks, classroom handouts, etc.
  • Photocopy for general business use, library reserves, ILL/document delivery, etc.
  • Posting e-reserves, course management systems, e-coursepacks, etc.
  • Use in e-mail to contacts outside of your organization, intranet/extranet/Internet postings, etc.
  • Republish into a book, journal, newsletter, etc.
Permission Request
A request submitted through our pay-per-use services for permission to use and share copyrighted material. If the material is not pre-authorized in Copyright Clearance Center’s title catalog, we contact the rightsholder to get permission on the customer’s behalf and post feedback to the customer’s account.
Per-Copy Fee
A per copy fee is a royalty fee charged to use the licensed material. To calculate the royalty fee, we multiply the per-copy fee by the number of copies requested. This fee can be used in conjunction with a per-page fee.
Per-Page Fee
A royalty fee charged for each page to be photocopied. To calculate the royalty fee, the per-page fee is multiplied by the number of pages and number of copies requested.
Pre-authorized Titles
Titles in Copyright Clearance Center’s title catalog for which we can convey immediate permission upon customer request.
Publication or Publication Title
A bibliographic and publishing term indicating the name of a book, magazine, journal or newspaper.
A collection of publication titles (journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.) covered by Copyright Clearance Center’s Annual Copyright License. Upon payment of an annual license fee, an organization can reproduce, for internal use, unlimited quantities of excerpts from the copyrighted materials in the repertory for their license.
Publishing content from one work into a different format (for example, hard cover to paperback), a different medium (book to CD-ROM) or a different work (chapter from one book used in a second book).
The legal authorization to perform some act on, or make some use of, a copyrighted work. This authorization is initially granted by the U.S. Copyright Act to the “author” of the work. The author may be the employer of the writer of the work, or may be another type of creator if the work is not one of text. In some cases, a publisher may own all the rights to the work it prints or publishes. In other cases, writers, journalists or photographers (in some cases called freelancers) may retain the rights to the works they create (or an original publisher may own the rights in a particular work) even if the work appears in another party’s publication.Thousands of publishers, authors and other rightsholders authorize Copyright Clearance Center to license their copyrighted works (sometimes referred to as “content”) on their behalf.
An organization or individual that holds the copyright to a creative work, such as an article, book or image. A rightsholder can be a publisher, author, photographer, etc., or any person, company, estate or trust who receives a right from an original rightsholder (by purchase, gift, inheritance or any other way).
Royalty (also called a royalty fee)
The fee charged by a rightsholder for the use of his, her or its copyrighted work. When a license is granted through Copyright Clearance Center, it is the rightsholder (or in certain cases, a group of rightsholders), and not Copyright Clearance Center, that sets the royalty fee.
Serial Publication
A serial is content that is published in regular installments that are numbered or dated, and that is intended to be continued indefinitely. Some examples of serial works include: periodicals, magazines, journals and newsletters. Most serials carry an International Serial Standard Number (ISSN) that uniquely identifies the serial and is usually (but not always) applicable to the entire history of a serial, whether past, present or future.
Special Order
A term Copyright Clearance Center uses within our pay-per-use services for an order that requires Copyright Clearance Center to contact the rightsholder directly for permission when that permission cannot be instantly granted. We follow up with the rightsholder, and notify the user when the permission is conveyed.
Staff-Produced Copy
A term used by newspapers and certain other periodicals to indicate articles written by reporters, writers, journalists or other employees on the publication’s staff. “Staff-produced copy” is usually indicated as such in the byline of an article with the writer’s name and the words “Staff Reporter” or “Newspaper Name Staff Reporter.” Important Note: When using’s publication search to look up or obtain copyright permission, if the phrase “(Staff-Produced Copy Only)” appears after a publication’s name, it means that Copyright Clearance Center can only license staff-produced copy. You are responsible for verifying that the work you wish to reuse was staff-produced.
Standard Numbers
The ISBNs of books, or the ISSNs of magazines, journals or other serial publications, which are used to identify copyrighted materials. LCCNs and OCLC Numbers are also commonly used standard numbers for books and serials.
A trade book, textbook, magazine, journal, newspaper, cartoon or conference proceedings published by technical and professional organizations, etc. Copyright Clearance Center can ordinarily authorize a user to reproduce or otherwise use only a portion of a work.
Your Reference
The order process for all pay-per-use services gives the customer an option to create a “reference” for his or her own internal order tracking and accounting purposes. The reference will then appear on the invoice for the order. For example, you may choose to enter a cost center number, a department name, a date or a professor’s name.