Blog – Copyright Clearance Center http://www.copyright.com Rights Licensing Expert Thu, 23 Mar 2017 20:50:54 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://www.copyright.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/cropped-ccc-favicon-32x32.png Blog – Copyright Clearance Center http://www.copyright.com 32 32 Rise of the Researchers at London Book Fair 2017 http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/rise-researchers-london-book-fair-2017/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/rise-researchers-london-book-fair-2017/#respond Thu, 23 Mar 2017 08:00:29 +0000 http://www.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=12361 CCC CEO Tracey Armstrong led a panel discussion on how researchers are driving innovation in scientific publishing at London Book Fair.

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CCC was a proud sponsor of the London Book Fair again this year (March 13-16, 2017), one of the most influential content marketplace events in the world. Over the next four weeks, Velocity of Content will bring that global gathering to you with a series of four posts, each focusing on a CCC-led panel discussion: The Rise of the Researchers – New Directions in Scholarly Publishing, Checking-In on the Road to Digital Transformation, The Winning Move for Open Access, and Authentication and the Holy Grail.

“Scientists are very, very preoccupied with the publication process, which they need in order to advance their careers.”  – Dr. John Inglis, Co-founder, bioRxiv

First up: The Rise of the Researchers—New Directions in Scholarly Publishing

As part of the Research & Scholarly Publishing Forum at last week’s London Book, Copyright Clearance Center CEO Tracey Armstrong moderated a panel discussion that explored how researchers are driving innovation in scientific publishing, and finding new roles in publishing far beyond the laboratory bench. The RSPF is presented by the UK’s Publishers Association and the Association of Learned & Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP).

Learn more about the panel participants

Tracey Armstrong is the President and Chief Executive Officer at CCC, bringing more than 20 years of experience in rights management with CCC to the industry. Leading the organization through a period of phenomenal change and challenge, Tracey has helped transform CCC’s licensing solutions to meet the needs of today’s digital publishing world.

Frederick Fenter Ph.D., Executive Editor of Frontiers, one of the largest and fastest-growing open-access publishers in the world. In 2014, Frontiers received the ALPSP Gold Award for Innovation in Publishing.

Dr. John Inglis, co-founder of bioRxiv, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory’s preprint service for the life sciences. Inglis is also the founding Executive Director and Publisher of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, a not-for-profit publisher of journals, books, and online media in molecular and cellular biology, based in Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island in New York State.

Sybil Wong, Ph.D., Head of Partnerships for Sparrho, a startup blending expert curation and machine learning to help users from more than 150 countries stay on top of the science that matters to them.

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How (and Why) You Should Establish Your Content Collection as a Portfolio http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/establish-content-collection-portfolio/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/establish-content-collection-portfolio/#respond Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:00:59 +0000 http://www.dev1.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=11005 If you’ve been subscribing to an ad hoc content purchasing process, consider the benefits of creating a content portfolio to better understand the content investment.

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A “portfolio” can have several different meanings – financial, intellectual, artistic.  What brings these uses of the term together is the concept that there is an ideal group of assets that represent the strategic needs and goals of the entity.

Information managers should think of content purchasing similarly. When a content portfolio represents an organization’s information needs in an appropriately balanced manner, rather than as separate unrelated purchases, there is a better story about the value of the content investment.

In fast paced environments, decision makers want to be able to react to changes, but also anticipate what will happen next. Managing a content portfolio is no different.

Consider the benefits of creating a content portfolio with some specific steps to get started:

Establish your content collection as a portfolio

To understand the content collection as a portfolio, the first step is to take a full inventory of what has already been purchased. A spreadsheet is a great way to begin recording this list. Describe the content in as much detail as possible, including content title, vendor/publisher information, cost, access methodology, etc.  Once you’ve organized your assets, moving from a simple descriptive inventory to a managed portfolio requires a bit more analysis.

Begin by describing the content collection in terms of attributes that are meaningful to the organization. These attributes can be associated with the content itself, how it is funded, cost stratification level, and usage. Here are a few examples of how content can be organized:

  • Categorize by the information need it addresses: Is it technical information, company information, patent data, etc.?
  • Price stratification and type of purchase: Provide a grouping of three or more levels of cost categories, with high cost content purchases being identified separately from lower cost investments. Identify if the content purchase type is a subscription, a token-based content platform, or a one-off investment. Is the content available as an enterprise-wide subscription or is it limited to certain groups or people? What language or geographic characteristics are available within the content?

Doing this descriptive exercise (which essentially applies taxonomies to the content portfolio) allows the information team to prioritize what content needs attention. For example, content investments over a certain dollar amount might take precedence in being tracked, maintained and justified.

Once categorizing and describing the portfolio has occurred, it’s time to compare the portfolio content to strategic initiatives, usage patterns or other business needs.  This allows a more granular understanding of how the content represents the organization’s interests.

  • Example #1: Analyze the usage of the high-dollar content spend category. It’s a subset of the overall portfolio, but if the usage is very high for the costs, that can justify the spend.
  • Example #2: Is the organization expanding into new geographies and markets? If so, how does the portfolio support that in relation to language and geographic content coverage? By aligning more granular views of the data to organizational initiatives the information manager can better describe why the content is needed.

Finally, as data is collected, you can begin to show patterns over time. This is terrific information for showing increased demand and usage trends. It also lays the groundwork to show that the content portfolio is a dynamic asset that is responsive and agile in the face of changing organizational needs.

Recommend investment, divestment and rebalancing

The content portfolio should never be static. Information that was deemed critical two years ago may or may not be relevant in the present or future. Actively managing what gets purchased, what gets dropped and the overall makeup of the spend creates a strong information asset that supports strategic direction. Having good data to support purchasing decisions will allow information managers to deliver confident direction on the content investment that will be appreciated by finance and budget teams, as well as providing clear reasons for any changes made to the content portfolio.

Look carefully at how content gets purchased. Most information organizations will deploy a variety of access methods to create cost savings and support the information needs of a global employee base. They may have broad subscriptions to content that gets used widely, deposit or token accounts for access to less widely used content and document delivery for one-off purchasing and individualized information needs. Cost efficiencies can be achieved if the information manager can track these changes.

If demand can be tracked in relation to spending, it can create opportunities for rebalancing the portfolio. For instance, if content is repeatedly accessed through document delivery from a specific journal or group of similar journals, it may be time to consider moving towards a subscription for that content. Likewise, when the demand for an enterprise-wide subscription drops, tracking the drop and knowing the delta for when the cost will exceed the benefits of the subscription allows the information manager to change how that content is purchased for significant cost savings.

Forecast needs, future investment opportunities and budget alignment

In fast paced environments, decision makers want to be able to react to changes, but also anticipate what will happen next. Managing a content portfolio is no different. If the information manager can confidently anticipate information requirements, he can clearly communicate the proactive need when budget planning.

To anticipate or forecast content demand, the information manager needs to look at data over a historical period. A simple historical analysis can create valuable insight.

  • Evaluate increasing or decreasing demand year over year. Tracking this demand on a graph can provide a realistic anticipation of demand for the near future.
  • As a second step, add in more information to create further confidence in content demand predictions. Employee growth rate, potential acquisitions or divestitures, seasonal demand, and geographic office changes are all great data points to begin to include in the analysis if they are accessible.

Developing a dynamic content portfolio with trackable attributes creates a well-managed content strategy that is easily communicated to decision makers. It allows information managers to react appropriately and quickly to changes in employee information needs and organizational strategy as well as anticipating future information requirements.

Ready to learn more? Download 3 Approaches to Justify Your Content Spend for steps to create a strong case for content investment.

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3 Ways Big Data Affects Biomedical Research http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/3-ways-big-data-affects-biomedical-research/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/3-ways-big-data-affects-biomedical-research/#respond Tue, 21 Mar 2017 08:00:19 +0000 http://www.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=12239 With the help of big data, biomedical research can now access span swaths of medical records and test results to make smarter, swifter decisions.

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Is there anything big data can’t do? Its advocates say it can fight fake news, win elections, and solve crimes. It could also change the face of medical research.

McKinsey & Company estimates that big data analytics could reduce US healthcare costs by $300 to $450 billion each year. However, a recent report by the McKinsey Global Institute suggests the US healthcare industry has captured just 10-20% of that potential untapped value. It might be a game-changer, but the journey has only just begun…

Today, using big data mined from electronic medical records (EMRs), medical databases, wearables, clinical trials and insurance claims, researchers can not only find targeted malignancies but also make trials faster, more powerful and less expensive.

Streamlining research to fight disease faster

In biomedical research, time is of the essence. Before big data, the quickest a researcher could hope to receive results was within a few days. With the help of big data, researchers can now access huge swaths of medical records and test results to make smarter, swifter decisions.

Using big data, scientists at London’s Institute of Cancer Research have reduced the time to conduct complex analysis of breast cancer cells from decades to months. The study, published in Genome Research, discovered that changes in the shape of breast cancer cells result in changes to genetic activity. The researchers used large data sets to map these links and reveal how cell changes are connected to the clinical outcomes of patients.

This means that physicians can predict how aggressive a patient’s cancer is based on the appearance of her cells, and choose treatment accordingly.

Boosting the value of clinical trials

Since the first official clinical trial in 1747, patients have been assigned to groups randomly. Today, using big data mined from electronic medical records (EMRs), medical databases, wearables, clinical trials and insurance claims, researchers can not only find targeted malignancies but also make trials faster, more powerful and less expensive.

For example, in Spain the Harmony project – part of the IMI Big Data for Better Outcomes (BD4BO) program – is using big data to create a European map of hematologic malignancies. Such tumors rank fifth in terms of frequency and third in terms of death rates.

Improving safety

Big data can also be used to determine risk. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that 500,000 workers are exposed to potentially toxic laser and electrosurgery smoke each year. By transforming extensive unstructured data sets into interoperable formats, researchers can predict which procedures are most likely to produce smoke, the impact of exposure, and the steps needed to protect against it.

And while the benefits of big data are often only associated with advancements in treating humans, technology extends these benefits to animals used in clinical research, too. Evaluating big data allows researchers to predict possible medical outcomes for an animal and adjust tests accordingly. By sharing huge datasets, biomedical processes are faster, causing less stress for the animals. Thanks to large open source data analysis, we could also see virtual animal models replacing their living counterparts.

Big data applications in the Internet of Things have also resulted in other alternatives, like wearable devices that monitor the effect of a drug when an animal is in its natural environment.

Playing catch-up

Big data might lead to breakthroughs in research, but the medical industry is playing catch-up. If the industry is ready to capture big data’s full potential, it faces some major barriers: a disjointed infrastructure; data that is often siloed or inaccessible; inadequate storage; and concerns about ‘de-identification’ of data and patient confidentiality.

But once research teams and bioinformaticians can spend less time structuring and organizing data and more time focusing on the results and insights, big data has the power to reshape biomedical research. And with 80-90% of value up for grabs, according to McKinsey, who knows where it could lead?

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Can Copyright Undermine Fake News? http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/can-copyright-undermine-fake-news/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/can-copyright-undermine-fake-news/#respond Fri, 17 Mar 2017 08:00:54 +0000 http://www.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=12256 Platforms seek tech-driven solutions to combat fake news, but copyright enforcement is may be the simplest solution.

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There was a time when a news story was either classed as ‘news’ or ‘not news.’ If the story was current and significant, it was news, but if it was too lighthearted or lifestyle focused, it was not. These days, however, there is a third category: fake news.

From Pope Francis’ endorsement of Trump to the Pizzagate conspiracy, which led a gunman to enter a Washington pizzeria, fictional news stories  spread wildly across social media last year.

Top 3 fake political news stories on Facebook in 2016*

  • “Obama signs executive order banning the Pledge of Allegiance in Schools Nationwide” – ABCNews.com.co
    2,177,000 shares, comments and reactions
  • “Pope Francis shocks world, endorses Donald Trump for President” – Ending The Feed
    961,000 shares, comments and reactions
  • Trump offering free one-way tickets to Africa & Mexico for those who wanna leave America – tmzhiphop.com
    802,000 shares, comments and reactions

Such was the volume of misinformation in 2016 that trust in news reporting has deteriorated. According to figures from BuzzFeed News, hoaxes about US politics racked up 10.6 million shares, comments and reactions on Facebook last year. And fake news managed to steal the headlines to such an extent that Oxford Dictionaries selected ‘post-truth’ as its word of the year for 2016.

The public once enjoyed high-quality content paid for through advertising, subscriptions, and licensing, and protected by copyright.  Platforms, through intentional and unintentional design, political lobbying, and disregard of rights have undermined that traditional model.  I get the utopian vision of the early internet days.  At the time, there was an ethos that if the old business models were destroyed, we would reach a nirvana of citizen journalists and user generated content.  Platforms developed a new model based on clicks, but revenue models based on clicks are a difficult path for supporting a network of stringers, photographers, and reporters around the world.

As anyone in industry knows, enforcing copyright without the backing of platforms is not only expensive, it’s virtually impossible. Platforms have made combating copyright protection one of their key lobbying priorities, and have funded Astroturf organizations to hide their corporate interests.  Now as platforms seek fancy, tech-driven solutions to identifying and combating fake news — such as the use of artificial intelligence — they continue to avoid the simplest solution.

It should come as no surprise that it seems the only solution not being discussed by platforms is the support of copyright:  the legal regime that has enabled high-quality news for centuries.

Countless individuals across the globe are frustrated by the content they receive from their news and social feeds. They want news that will deepen their understanding of the world, make them feel enlightened and informed, and inspire them to share ideas of importance to them. If platform companies started to help creators defend their rights, and stopped lobbying against copyright, they would both provide users with something useful, and begin fixing the mess they created.

*Source

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Understanding the Direct Impact of R&D Content Investments http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/understanding-direct-impact-rd-content-investments/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/understanding-direct-impact-rd-content-investments/#respond Wed, 15 Mar 2017 08:00:28 +0000 http://www.dev1.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=11001 It’s not until information managers draw attention to the importance of third party content and its value that they can start to validate its costs.

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Information is at the core of the global economy. The right information at the right time can be the difference between success and failure for an organization. Market research, intellectual property, big data, sentiment analysis, analytics, semantic analysis, artificial intelligence, internet search – these are resources, approaches and tools that companies use to leverage information for advantage in the marketplace.

Published content and scientific literature is a key part of the information that drives innovation within organizations. It forms the basis for developing intellectual property, creating breakthrough inventions, and building product solutions for companies that focus on R&D and developing cutting edge technologies.

Just providing metrics can be arbitrary, particularly if you don’t have a historical record. Is 100 a good number? 1,000? 10,000? Lacking context, these numbers are meaningless.

Yet third party content that supports these efforts can often be targeted for cost reductions or be overlooked as a critical investment by leaders. Misunderstandings of traditional content being freely available on the web or via other sources prevails.

Without understanding the direct impact of content investments, it can be hard to show why the high costs of content are worth the spend.  Getting usage data and metrics that provide clear insight on what content is important can be difficult, but necessary.

It’s not until information managers draw attention to the importance of third party content and its value in supporting R&D, product innovation and competitive advantage, that they can start to validate its costs.

So, what information will truly influence and elevate the need for content? It comes down to being able to tell a story of strategic need to decision makers and executives. These stories need to be focused on how the content helps the overall organization maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace, how the content spend supports organizational strategy, and how content use can influence innovation direction and trends.

Spending Justification Requires Specifics

Corporate information centers are unfortunately familiar with restricted budgets and even cuts to the bottom line. With the understanding that the competition for corporate resources and budget can be fierce, information managers need to move beyond generalizations and anecdotes about the value of purchased content. They need to be ready to deliver informed insights about the importance of critical content, track changes in information needs, and even reposition content funds, all while effectively meeting employee’s information needs on a global basis.

But even when data is available, without context it’s just numbers. Does a download count mean anything if you don’t know who downloaded it, which department used it, or if it provided value? Probably not. And just providing metrics can be arbitrary, particularly if you don’t have a historical record. Is 100 a good number? 1,000? 10,000? Lacking context, these numbers are meaningless.

Understanding the source of accessed content is also critical. Whether an article was downloaded from a subscription database, from a document delivery order, or from an internal server can provide key information on the structure of the overall content portfolio investment. If the details on content usage are missing, it can be difficult if not impossible for the information manager to advocate effectively for investing in content sources.

Measures That Matter

Measures that matter are those that can be used to create clarity around the need for the information throughout the organization.

These recommendations show that specific usage metrics can provide a wealth of insight.

  • Tie usage metrics to specific strategic areas, including departments, projects or initiatives. These can provide the information manager the knowledge to renew, reposition, decrease or increase content funding to key strategic areas based upon need.
  • Look at time slices and seasonal use of content. This allows forecasting of future information needs based upon real data, something financial planners look for in modelling organizational spend.
  • Track trends in what employees and others in the organization use. This can be an interesting view into where future information needs may be heading.

Measures that support process and workflow improvements can be useful and are often used to show savings in time or effort. Although good to note, it is important to remember that in defending content spending, these productivity measures are not the most powerful story.

Managers who can align their content portfolio with the organization’s strategy and show how purchased content can create a competitive marketplace advantage, can elevate the visibility of the corporate information center as a strategic resource in managing content acquisitions appropriately.


Ready to learn more? Download 3 Approaches to Justify Your Content Spend for steps to create a strong case for content investment.

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Finding a Cure for Cancer: Open Data, Open Collaboration and Open Minds http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/finding-cure-cancer-open-data-open-collaboration-open-minds/ Tue, 14 Mar 2017 08:00:34 +0000 http://www.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=12228 “Let’s make America the country that cures cancer once and for all.” It was this statement from former President Barack… Read more

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“Let’s make America the country that cures cancer once and for all.”

It was this statement from former President Barack Obama’s 2016 State of the Union address that prompted the creation of a national initiative to fight cancer – the Cancer Moonshot bill.

By signing the 21st Century Cures Act (known as the Moonshot bill), Obama ensured $1.8 billion would be allocated to cancer research funding. Covering other areas of healthcare, the bill also supports brain research, precision medicine, and substance abuse treatment. It will “literally save lives,” in the words of former Vice President Joe Biden.

“Let’s make America the country that cures cancer once and for all.”

Speaking at an American Society of Clinical Oncology conference, Biden also made clear: “No single oncologist or cancer researcher can find the answers on his or her own. It requires a lot more openness: open data, open collaboration, and above all, open minds.”

From a research perspective, this emphasis on open data highlights some of the daily frustrations associated with drug development. In line with this, medical publisher Elsevier launched its own initiative at the end of 2016. The online Cancer Moonshot Resource Center provides researchers and other interested parties free access to data, metrics, video interviews and other resources to support the fight against cancer.

IBM Watson Health is also heavily involved. The organization is currently working with more than 20 leading cancer institutes to make genetic data more accessible to those who can make a difference to people’s lives. For research teams, whose key to success depends on staying up to date with the latest scientific developments, this open repository of information accelerates and simplifies research.

As anyone working in the oncology therapeutic space knows, every step towards creating a medical environment with unrestricted access to anonymized data is a step in the right direction. The more data available to those who know what to do with it, the more innovation and advancements.

We understand that data is just one part in the fight against cancer, but the ability to use that data throughout the drug development process is critical. Ensuring early phase researchers are getting the information they need is the first step in the path of research, a path that leads to one end – a cure for cancer.

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Enterprise Content Management: Helping you declutter your content http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/enterprise-content-management-helping-declutter-content/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/enterprise-content-management-helping-declutter-content/#respond Fri, 10 Mar 2017 08:00:15 +0000 http://www.dev1.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=10939 Smart content management tools help you take a digital-first approach to your business.

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Decluttering is all the rage. We can’t get enough of minimalist lifestyles, tiny houses and digital detoxing.

Now publishers are in on the act, too. With promises of effortless content creation, compliant trouble-free distribution and straightforward discovery, it’s obvious why Enterprise Content Management (ECM) solutions appeal to the industry. In fact, they appeal to businesses far and wide. Research by the Radicati Group predicts the ECM market will grow to more than $9.4 billion by 2018.

Publishers need to be more efficient in the way they organize and use content.


Want to make 2017 the year that you declutter your content and start using it more efficiently? Here’s our guide to implementing a successful ECM strategy.

#1: Take stock

Start the process with a content audit. It may take time to track down every piece of content, but it will help you understand your present situation. After that, work out what to do with that content and where it should live thereafter.

#2: Focus on efficiency

Publishers need to be more efficient in how they organize and use content. You may believe the quickest solution is to repurchase, but in the long run that’s neither efficient nor cost-effective.

A study by the International Data Corporation calculated that if 1,000 employees on an average salary of $80,000 each spent 2.5 hours a day searching for lost content, a business would lose $2.5 million every year in wasted time. By allowing smarter allocation of resources, an ECM tool saves time and money.

#3: Consider consumption

You don’t need us to tell you the different ways readers consume content. The question is whether you approach your content with these various formats in mind. The more flexible and format-agnostic your mindset, the freer you will be to use, reuse and get real value from every word and image.

#4: Protect your content

Content is at the heart of your business, so you need to protect the intellectual property behind it. An ECM solution helps create more transparency and lets you keep control of your content, even when working with external third parties.

#5: Enrich through metadata

Metadata turns information into an asset. Enriched content leads to strategic organizational advantages, so the better you manage your content, the more consistent will be your results.

Smart content management tools help you take a digital-first approach to your business. They allow you to be smart and agile with your content, and they support the publishing process from end to end.

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Top Copyright Questions for Marketers http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/top-copyright-questions-marketers/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/top-copyright-questions-marketers/#respond Tue, 07 Mar 2017 08:00:48 +0000 http://www.dev1.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=10862 Can I use content if I’m not profiting from it? How do Creative Commons and Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) fit into this?

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Here are answers to the most common questions CCC gets asked regarding copyright in the context of marketing.

Does crediting someone’s content give me permission to use it?

In short, no. Generally, you need to have permission (preferably written) from the person whose content you wish to use, whether that content is in the form of words, still images, video or music. If not, you may be sued for copyright infringement, in which case you would need to be prepared to prove fair use or some other defense.

The safest way to approach the is-it or isn’t-it copyrighted issue is to assume that all content – text, still and video images, music, etc., whether online or in any other medium – is protected by copyright.

Can I use content if I’m not profiting from it?

Again, the answer is no. Whether you are making money or not, using someone else’s content is still likely to be copyright infringement. Not profiting, however, may help your fair use argument (as would proving that you used very little).

How can I tell if content is copyrighted?

The safest way to approach the is-it or isn’t-it copyrighted issue is to assume that all content – text, still and video images, music, etc., whether online or in any other medium – is protected by copyright. If you didn’t create the content, then you will need permission to use it. (Note that, with online content, sometimes the permission is posted right there with the content.)

How does Creative Commons fit into this?

Creative Commons is a system of licenses prepared by lawyers and designed to provide free permission for certain uses of content, and those licenses are available for anyone to use (for free) with their own works. Creative Commons licenses enable copyright owners to give permission for others to use their work without the owners having to hire their own lawyers. However, Creative Commons licenses are still copyright licenses. And sometimes it’s difficult to figure out whether the use you want to make is covered by the Creative Commons license that has been applied to the work – and generally the Creative Commons license, even though free, is not negotiable. You also need to be certain that the content in question actually belongs to the person who applied the Creative Commons license. Finally, if you run into any difficulties, you’re on your own. Creative Commons as an organization stays out of disputes over licenses.

What part does the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) play?

Under the DMCA, online service providers are obliged to remove content posted on their websites that violates copyright according to the owner of the content. If this happens to material you have posted and you disagree, there is a well-defined process you can follow.

What should I do if I receive a cease-and-desist letter?

Cease-and-desist letters are issued to apparently unauthorized users of content (whether online or elsewhere) and usually demand a hefty fee to resolve the copyright claim. If you don’t have a license, you have two options: pay the fee or fight the issue (possibly in court). Either way, the outcome tends to favor companies with lots of (legal) resources.

So what content can I safely use?

Any original content you have actually created yourself is safe to use, as is any content for which you have obtained permission from the owner. Just be absolutely sure the person who gave you permission is him- or herself actually authorized to give you the permission. Most commonly, this will be the creator/author, a publisher or producer, or a professional agent of some kind.

It’s up to you as a marketer to understand and follow the law. Some rules within marketing are there to be broken, others are not.

To get the copyright basics, visit the About Copyright section on CCC’s website.

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Plagiarism vs. Copyright Infringement http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/plagiarism-vs-copyright-infringement/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/plagiarism-vs-copyright-infringement/#respond Tue, 28 Feb 2017 08:00:58 +0000 http://www.dev1.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=10856 A case of plagiarism may not be infringement - and vice versa. Make sure you understand the differences.

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There is an element of confusion about whether plagiarism and copyright infringement are the same thing. It’s a question we are often asked at Copyright Clearance Center. Unfortunately, our answer is equally confusing: yes, and no. But bear with me, and I’ll try to be a little bit more helpful.

I’ll start with the legal stuff. Copyright infringement is a question for the law. This doesn’t mean it has to be applied by lawyers – non-lawyers are just as entitled to apply it – but it will always be a legal issue. Plagiarism, though it might sound similar, is fundamentally different: it is an ethical issue.

Copyright infringement is a question for the law. Plagiarism is fundamentally different: it is an ethical issue. 

Imagine the situation. You have cut and pasted a short paragraph of someone else’s work into your own. You may have received permission from the owner to do so, or your use of the content may be limited enough that the principle of fair use applies. Either way, this is not an example of copyright infringement. Even if you were sued, there would be no basis to make a legal case against you.

However, if you have cut and pasted the same paragraph and presented it as part of one of your school papers, chances are that the teacher will instantly classify it as plagiarism. From a teacher’s perspective, whether or not you have permission is not the issue. These are not your own ideas, they haven’t been given appropriate attribution, and you haven’t distinguished them enough from your own ideas. As a result, your assignment contains plagiarism and is heading for an instant fail.

Traditionally, the two notions of plagiarism and copyright infringement have been associated with one another. If it’s plagiarism, it must be copyright infringement, and vice-versa. However, this is simply not true. A case may not be considered infringement because it has followed a fair use protocol, but may still be classed as plagiarism. On the flipside, a case of clear copyright infringement may not fall into the plagiarism category because attribution has been given.

So, let me try again to answer the question clearly. What is the difference between plagiarism and copyright infringement? The two occupy different spaces that run parallel with one another. The only way to determine whether something constitutes plagiarism or infringement rests on what issue it is you are trying to address.

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What is Open Access? http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/what-is-open-access/ http://www.copyright.com/velocity-of-content/what-is-open-access/#respond Tue, 21 Feb 2017 08:00:52 +0000 http://www.dev1.copyright.com/?post_type=blog_post&p=10849 Generally, Open Access is the ability to gain access to articles in full text without having to pay a license/pay-per-use fee.

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Let’s start with the simple question: what is Open Access? It generally involves users’ being able to gain access to articles in full text from the open web without having to pay a license fee or a pay-per-use fee or having to provide additional information.

There are different definitions of Open Access, however. Sometimes the definition includes licensing which allows people to reuse the work, make derivatives of the work, mine the work and use it without seeking permission from the original author. Of course, in the case of most (but not all) of the Open Access licenses in common use, all of this hinges on the explicit license condition that proper attribution to the author is used. (In those cases, missing attribution means that you are violating the Open Access license and may be an infringer.) Other people’s definitions of OA are less comprehensive, labeling an article Open Access so long as a user can get to it.

The moment you start talking about openness, you are referring to a wide range of attributes beyond just being able to access a document.

At the Open Scholarship Initiative earlier this year, an event sponsored by the United Nations, CCC’s Roy Kaufman was part of a panel assigned to define the word “open.” This was more than Open Access. It was about open scholarship, but they defined openness as a continuum of various attributes. When we talk about these attributes, we’re not just referring to reuse rights, but other elements like these:

• How open is the peer review?
• Is the underlying data openly available?
• Is it searchable?
• Is it linkable online?
• Can people find it and use it?
• Is the sponsorship of the underlying research clearly and concisely disclosed?

The moment you start talking about openness, you are referring to a wide range of attributes beyond just being able to access a document. You also encounter concepts known as “the gold road” and “green road” to Open Access. Here’s a simple definition of each:

• Gold road: The article is published on payment of a fee to a publisher. The article in the version of record is then available to everyone.
• Green road: The version of record in not made available; instead, it is the version that the author or his/her institution put in a public repository before publication that is made available. Thus, the article may lack copy-editing, links, pagination or other value-added elements that publishers use to enhance an article. “Green road” is sometimes favored by governments and other funders and imposed on authors under mandates associated with the grants received by the authors.

The whole concept of Open Access is not only complicated, but also often subject to dispute. The most important thing to remember whenever you access articles – particularly when you are on a repository rather than a publisher’s website – is to check which version you are accessing. Is it the version of record, the submitted version, the accepted version, or a version modified since publication?

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